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陌生的面孔點亮害羞的大腦

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New faces light up shy brains

US scientists have spotted something different in the brains of shy and outgoing people when they meet a new face.
What's more, it seems that the difference has its roots in childhood. Individuals' approaches to unfamiliarity as kids appear to be echoed by their neural responses to novelty later in life.
The distinction may rest in an almond-shaped region of the brain called the amygdala, which is involved in emotion and survival. When Carl Schwartz of Massachusetts General Hospital in Charlestown showed pictures of strangers to young adults, he saw more activity in the amygdala of thirteen 21-year-olds with a history of shyness than he did in adults who've been oozing confidence since kindergarten. "We can see that signature in the brain's circuitry," he says.
"I guess the biggest surprise for us is that individual differences in response to novel objects is maintained 20 years later," remarks Schwartz. Past shyness studies have focused on infants, recording details such as their heart rates. This experiment is the first to follow up such children as adults with brain imaging.
Environmental factors, such as overprotective parents or accidents, shape the temperament that people are born with. The hope is that research may help us to understand the complex crosstalk between genes and surroundings at crucial stages of infant development, and shed light on any connection between childhood anxiety and later psychiatric disorders.
Nonetheless, a correlation between brain activity in adults and childhood temperament does not prove that being reserved as a child leads to shyness later in life. "Our study provides a very strong inference, but it does not prove a link," cautions Schwartz.
So does this mean that cowering in the crib destines a person for a quiet life? Definitely not, says psychologist Simon Killcross of Cardiff University, UK, who studies mechanisms of fear and anxiety. "That a person has difficulty with novelty doesn't mean they are unable to change - the adult brain is more plastic than the man in the street would imagine."

陌生的面孔點亮害羞的大腦

美國科學家發現,害羞的和外向的人群面對陌生面孔時,腦部活動具有某種差異。
而且,這種差異在年幼時就存在。個體在成年后對新穎事物的腦部神經活動,是他們年幼時對待不熟悉事物時腦部神經活動的一種再現。
這種差別可能來源于腦部一個參與情緒和基本生命活動的杏仁狀結構——杏仁體。查爾斯城馬薩諸塞州總醫院的卡爾. 施瓦茨醫生,向一組年輕人展示了一系列陌生人的臉部照片。他發現,與從幼年時就很自信的被試相比,13個曾經被確定具有害羞個性的21歲被試的杏仁體活動更為強烈。“我們可以發現那些腦部回路的特征,”他說。
“我認為最讓我們吃驚的是個體對新鮮事物反應的差異可以保持20年之久,” 施瓦茨醫生表示。以前對害羞的研究集中在嬰幼兒身上,記錄諸如心率等細節信息。通過腦成像技術跟蹤研究兒童直至成人的實驗,這還是第一次。
如過分溺愛的父母或意外事故等環境因素,可以改變人天生的氣質。對于理解兒童生長發育關鍵階段的基因和環境之間的復雜關系、找到兒童焦慮及其以后的精神疾病的關系,這項研究帶來了希望。
然而,成人腦部活動和兒童氣質的相關性并不能證明童年時害羞的個性會在其以后的生活中一直保持。“我們的研究提出了這樣一個推論,并不能證明兩者的必然聯系,” 施瓦茨醫生提醒到。
這是否表示在嬰兒床上瑟縮成一團的個性害羞的嬰兒注定要過平淡的生活?當然不是,英國加的夫大學一位研究害怕和焦慮機制的心理學家西蒙.科爾克勞斯。“一個人面對新事物感到不適并不表示他們就會一直如此——成人腦的可塑性遠遠超過任何一個人的想象”。

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(verse 3)
Bleu, bleu, l'amour est bleu
Le ciel est bleu lorsque tu reviens
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《Love is blue》英文歌詞:

Love Is Blue

Blue, blue, my world is blue,
Blue is my world now I am without you.
Grey, grey, my life is grey,
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