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From University of Alberta:

Smarter ways to measure intelligence than IQ, says University of Alberta researcher

Measuring a child's IQ is an obsolete way to determine intelligence, and in fact, labels youngsters unfairly, according to a University of Alberta professor.
根據Alberta大學的一位教授的說法,通過測量兒童的智商(IQ)來確定其智力的方法是陳舊的,同時事實上,這種貼標簽的方法也是不公平的。
Building on a theory he began researching almost 20 years ago, Dr. J.P. Das has developed ' rules and tools of intelligence' which point to factors other than IQ (Intelligence Quotient) in measuring how 'smart' a child is.
基于其從20年前就開始研究的一個理論,Das博士編制了同其他智商測試不同的關于如何測量一個孩子有多聰明的標準與工具。
''A child growing up in the slums or in a household with no literacy or books could be very street-smart, yet not have the school learning required for the traditional measurement of IQ,'' says Das, Professor Emeritus in educational psychology at the University of Alberta.
來自Alberta大學的退休教育心理學教授Das說,一個成長在貧民窟或者普通家庭,沒有接受教育的兒童可以很聰明,但傳統的智商測試必須要求曾經在學校學習過。
Das presented his Rules and Tools of Intelligence: How IQ became obsolete in a keynote address at the 28th International Congress of Psychology held in Beijing, China in August, and the system is now being used all over the world, and is being translated into several languages. Using a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Das is currently working with children in an Alberta aboriginal community to explore learning problems.
Das博士介紹了他關于智力的標準與測量工具:在八月份北京召開的第28屆國際心理學大會上發表了智商是怎樣變的陳舊為主題的演講,同時這套方法已經在全世界使用,即將被翻譯成各國的語言。經加拿大社會科學和人文研究委員會的批準,Das博士現在在Alberta的一個土著居民區展開關于如何學習的問題的研究。
Das identifies four 'rules of intelligence' that go into information processing. The rules include a belief that intelligence is not fixed, but is influenced by such factors as learning and cultural demands, cognitive abilities, even school attendance, as well as individual ability to process information such as language and face recognition.
Das博士確定了四種可以研究信息處理的智力標準。其中包括智力不是固定不變的,受諸如學習與文化需求、認知能力等因素的影響,甚至于到校的次數與個人在處理諸如言語和表象等的信息處理過程。
The rules guide the research on PASS theory, developed by Das and two colleagues in 1994. PASS (an acronym for Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive processing) has shown that intelligence should not be measured alone by school learning and IQ testing, but by information processing that occurs during this learning. ''What goes into intellectual abilities and how a person solves a problem is more important than a score itself,'' said Das.
標準知道在PASS理論上的研究,該理論是Das博士與其兩位同事在1994年提出來的。PASS理論(是計劃、注意、同時性、成功處理的英文簡稱)認為智力的測量不應是僅僅對學校學習與智商的測量,而應該是當學習是對信息處理的測量。Das博士說,什么影響智力能力和一個人如何解決問題是比一個分數本身更重要的。
A system for cognitive assessment based on PASS has been available since 1997, following standardized testing on 3,000 children and teens, and has been adopted by school districts in the United States, including Los Angeles.
從1997年開始,一套基于PASS理論的認知評估系統已經開始使用,是通過對3000名兒童的標準化測試得到的,并已經在美國的學區包括洛杉磯使用。
IQ testing can stigmatize a child permanently, causing more harm than good, Das said. ''When a child is labelled as gifted, you are happy. But when he is labelled as borderline intelligent, as a parent you think, 'What did I do? I must have committed a sin.'''
智商測試給一個孩子永遠地打上一個烙印,導致的壞處多于好處。Das博士說,當一個孩子被貼以天才的標簽,他會很高興,但他被貼以智力的邊線時候,作為他的父母親,你會想:我做了什么?我犯罪了。
Using the PASS rules of intelligence, teachers in the classroom can individualize their program planning for students, Das says. ''Rather than categorizing and labelling, a teacher can explore the different thought process of each child as unique.''
使用PASS的智力標準,教師可以使起針對學生的計劃更有個性。Das博士說,教師可以探索每個學生唯一不同的思考過程而不是將他們進行分類和貼標簽。

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  The Statue of Liberty in New Jersey waters outside New York Harbor is sheathed in copper of average thickness 2 mm. The statue is 50 m high and some 80 metric tons of copper was required for its fabrication. It is probable that few projects before or since the Statue’s construction in 1876 – 1885 ever required as much copper. Nonetheless, no historical records have yet been found to indicate positively the source of copper. It has been widely rumored that the copper used in the building of the Statue of Liberty in New Jersey came from Visnes Copper Mines at Karmoy near Stavanger in Norway.

  Historical records make no mention of the source of the copper used in the construction of the Statue of Liberty, although a local tradition suggests that the copper came from the French-owned Visnes Mine near Stavanger, Norway. One of the mines that provided high-purity ore to the European metals industry in the late nineteenth century was the Visnes Mine in Norway. This mine was in operation throughout much of the latter half of the nineteenth century, and local tradition has it that copper from the mine was used for the Statue of Liberty. Records show that ore from this mine, refined in France and Belgium, was a significant source of European copper in the late nineteenth century. To investigate further the origin of the statue’s copper, “Bell Laboratories” in New Jesey, USA, have analyzed the samples of copper from the Visnes Mines and from the Statue of Liberty by emission spectrograph. Bell Laboratories concluded that it is highly probable that the copper from the Visnes Mine was used for the Statue of Liberty, and that the metallurgical evidence argues strongly that the copper comes from Norway. In the autumn of 1985, copper from the statue was analyzed and it has now been confirmed that it was indeed extracted at Visnes.

  1. What is the main topic of the passage?

  a. Where the copper came from th

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