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開學了 給孩子一個好睡眠

時間:2011-06-16 15:59?? ?點擊:
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開學了 給孩子一個好睡眠
Kids and sleep: they need more

Now that school has started, many parents find themselves struggling to shift their kids back to a working routine. As they shave off time for TV and the Internet to make way for schoolwork, parents may want to add extra for that other big contributor to success at school: sleep. Recent research on kids has connected the importance of sleep not only to cognition, but to behavior and mood as well.

Some researchers theorize that the REM, or rapid eye movement, phase of sleep is when the brain produces and consolidates neural networks for memory and cognition. It's a kind of "formatting of the brain," says Ralph Downey, an expert of sleep medicine at Loma Linda University and Children's Hospital in Southern California and a spokesperson for the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Before the age of 6, a typical child will require between 12 and 13 hours of sleep per night, says Judith Owens, associate professor of pediatrics at Brown University and a noted expert on childhood sleep disorders. At age 6, 10 to 11 hours are needed. While the amount of sleep necessary drops once kids reach adolescence, Owens notes, "they still need at least nine hours under ideal circumstances."

What if they come up short? A sleep-deprived child's reaction is often different from the low energy and sleepiness experienced by adults. "Reducing the amount of hours a child sleeps manifests itself in the child becoming wired and hyperexcitable--exhibiting behavior similar to children with attention deficit disorder," says David Gozal, director of the pediatric sleep program at the University of Louisville in Kentucky. Kids' emotions may become erratic, says Gozal, and they may be less apt to listen or pay attention. Researchers at the University of Montreal report that a study of young children showed that those who slept significantly fewer hours than the recommended 10 were more hyperactive and impulsive than those who got plenty of shuteye and scored lower on two cognitive skills tests.

"Our results indicate that a modest but chronic reduction of just one hour of sleep nightly in early childhood can affect the child's cognitive performance at school entry," says Dominique Petit, a sleep researcher and coauthor of the study. She thinks there's a critical period in early childhood when the lack of sleep is particularly detrimental to development, even if sleep habits improve later on.

But moving "lights out" earlier can be a big challenge. Mark Goetting, a sleep medicine specialist and medical director of the Sleep Health Center in Portage, Mich., offers some recommendations:

Create positive associations with going to bed. "Often, parents will say to a child, 'You can stay up as long as you're good,' or, 'If you don't do what I say, you're going to bed.' It's not healthy to associate going to bed with punishment," says Goetting. "Parents and children will begin to see bedtime as a power struggle." And, of course, both want to win.

Establish a wind-down period before bed. A routine (like reading stories) can let a child know that he's headed toward bedtime and can help him slow down.

Construct a bedroom environment that promotes sleep. "A bedroom should not be a terribly stimulating place," says Goetting. So move the televisions, bright lights, and toys.

When the kids sleep better, parents may notice a difference in their own quality of life, too. "Parents are definitely better rested themselves--their mood is better, they feel more alert--and are able to function better at home and at work," says Owens. "It really sends a positive ripple through the entire family."(Agencies) 新學期開始了,很多家長正努力地把孩子拉回正軌。在讓看電視和上網讓位于家庭作業的同時,家長們可能還想為孩子的學習進步再添一大“砝碼”——睡眠。近日一項有關兒童的研究發現,睡眠不僅和兒童的認知表現有重要關系,而且會影響他們的行為和情緒。


孩子睡眠不足會怎樣呢?孩子在睡眠不足時的反應往往不同于成年人(在缺覺情況下)感到的精力不足與困乏。肯塔基州路易斯維爾大學的兒童睡眠研究主任大衛?格扎爾說:“孩子在缺乏睡眠的情況下會變得很亢奮——他們此時的行為表現與多動癥兒童類似。” 格扎爾說,(在睡眠不足的情況下),孩子的情緒會變得反復無常,他們往往不聽話、注意力也不如平時集中。蒙特利爾大學的研究人員稱,一項有關幼童的研究表明,睡眠時間嚴重低于專家建議的10個小時的兒童比睡眠充足的兒童更加亢奮與沖動,他們在兩項認知能力測試中的得分也較低。









  摘要: 大多數活躍的服務器頁(ASP)應用依賴串聯建立HTML 格式化的數據然后被用戶使用。本文對各種創造HTML 數據流的方法進行了比較,其中有一些在特定的情況下有更好的性能。asp 和Visual Basic編程設計的方法被合理采用了。

緒論 開發者編寫ASP 頁,其實是在創造一串格式化正文通過ASP提供給網絡客戶。你能使用多中不同的方法創造該正文,但是你所選擇的方法網絡應用的性能和可測量性有很大影響。在幫助用戶協調他們Web 應用性能的許多場合中,我已經發現主要的獲勝因素是那個改變HTML數據流的方式。在本文,我將展示一些普通的技術并且測試他們對簡單的asp頁的性能的影響。

asp 設計 很多asp開發者已經遵循好的軟件設計原則并且模塊化他們的代碼。這種設計通常采取用某一頁的部分離散的功能模塊組成新頁的形式。線性輸出由這些功能實現,通常是HTML代碼表,然后能通過各種各樣結合形式形成完整的一頁。一些開發者已經更深入一步研究并且把這些HTML函數作為Visual Basic COM的組成部分,希望受益于額外的編譯代碼提供的執行性能。

  雖然這是一個好的設計慣例,通過這種方法建立數據流對網絡站點執行效率有較大影響。不管現實操作執行是從asp的包含文件還是Visual Basic COM 零部件。


  考慮下列代碼碎片取自WriteHTML函數。 命名數據的參數僅僅是一個數組包含一些需要被格式化成一個表結構的數據(數據從數據庫返回, 例如)。

Function WriteHTML( Data )

Dim nRep For nRep = 0 to 99

sHTML = sHTML & VBcrlf _ & "<TR><TD>" & (nRep + 1) & "</TD><TD>" _

& Data( 0, nRep ) & "</TD><TD>" _


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